Saturday, January 17, 2015

Financial Management (Chapter 17: Financial Forecasting and Planning)

17.1   An Overview of Financial Planning

1) Types of plans that businesses typically use to guide their operations include
A) strategic plans.
B) long-range financial plans.
C) short-range financial plans.
D) all of the above.

2) Because financial planning usually takes place in a highly uncertain environment
A) it is rarely worth the time and expense.
B) time horizons should be limited to a few months.
C) it is important to develop contingency plans to respond to unexpected events.
D) it should avoid such specific issues as what sources of financing to use.

3) Long-term financial plans typically encompass
A) 6 to 12 months.
B) about 5 years.
C) 5 to 10 years.
D) the entire lifecycle of the corporation.


4) Strategic planning encompasses all of the following EXCEPT
A) a cash budget.
B) a description of the firm's core competencies and activities.
C) a definition of the firm's customers.
D) a description of the firm's competitors and its own competitive strengths and weaknesses.

5) Short-term financial plans span a period of
A) up to five years.
B) one to three years.
C) a year or less.
D) 1 month or less.

6) Short-term financial planning results in
A) a cash budget.
B) pro forma financial statements.
C) a sales forecast for the next 1 to 3 years.
D) a general narrative detailing near-term scenarios.

7) Long-term financial planning results in
A) a cash budget.
B) pro forma financial statements.
C) a sales forecast for the next 1 to 3 years.
D) a general narrative detailing near-term scenarios.

8) Typical steps in the financial planning process include
A) preparing a sales forecast.
B) analyzing cost data.
C) estimating tax expense.
D) all of the above.

9) The financial planning process is the responsibility of
A) financial analysts.
B) operations staff.
C) marketing staff
D) financial analysts, marketing staff, and operations staff interacting as a group.

10) The key ingredient in a firm's financial planning is the sales forecast.
Answer:  TRUE

11) Pro forma financial statements are a required part of the firm's tax returns.
Answer:  FALSE


12) One purpose of long-term financial plans is to estimate the firm's future capital spending and financing needs.
Answer:  FALSE

13) Cash budgets usually include details such as the timing of materials purchases, interest payments, and the like.
Answer:  TRUE

14) One disadvantage of long-term plans is a loss of flexibility in responding to unexpected events.
Answer:  FALSE

15) Long-term financial plans require that the firm have well-defined goals and objectives.
Answer:  TRUE

16) Discuss the basic functions that budgets perform for a firm.

Answer:  The budget is a short-term financial plan. It forecasts in detail sales, payments for variable and fixed costs, and other required payments such as interest, dividends, and taxes. One of the budgets most important functions is anticipating financing needs so that arrangements can be made well in advance. It is also a good instrument for monitoring performance and making adjustments as the budgeting period unfolds.


17) What are the key questions that a strategic plan attempts to answer? How does it relate to financial plans?

Answer:  The strategic plan asks such fundamental questions as: "Who are we and what do we do?" "Who are our customers?" "Who are our competitors and how do we compete?" The strategic plan provides the broader context for short and long-term financial plans.

18) Why is financial planning important in a highly uncertain financial environment.

Answer:  Even when conditions are changing rapidly and in ways that are difficult to foresee, the process of financial planning forces managers to think carefully about the future. As a result, they will be better prepared to respond to contingencies even if they eventually turn out to be quite different from what was anticipated.


17.2   Developing a Long-Term Financial Plan

1) What is the most important ingredient in developing a firm's financial plan?
A) A forecast of sales revenues
B) Determining the amount of dividends to pay shareholders
C) Projecting the rate of interest on proposed new debt
D) Deciding upon which method of depreciation a firm should utilize

2) The percent-of-sales method can be used to forecast
A) expenses.
B) assets.
C) liabilities.
D) all of the above.

3) Apple Two Enterprises expects to generate sales of $5,950,000 for fiscal 2014; sales were $3,450,000 in fiscal 2013. Assume the following figures for the fiscal year ending 2013: cash $70,000; accounts receivable $250,000; inventory $400,000; net fixed assets $520,000; accounts payable $235,000; and accruals $155,000. Use the percent-of-sales method to forecast cash for the fiscal year ending 2014.
A) $120,725
B) $75,003
C) $216,418
D) $319,604


4) Which of the following statements about the percent-of-sales method of financial forecasting is true?
A) It is the least commonly used method of financial forecasting.
B) It is a much more precise method of financial forecasting than a cash budget would be.
C) It involves estimating the level of an expense, asset, or liability for a future period as a percent of the forecast for sales revenues.
D) It projects all liabilities as a fixed percentage of sales.

5) The first step involved in predicting financing needs is
A) projecting the firm's sales revenues and expenses over the planning period.
B) estimating the levels of investment in current and fixed assets that are necessary to support the projected sales.
C) determining the firm's financing needs throughout the planning period.
D) none of the above.

6) A sales forecast for the coming year would reflect
A) any past trend which is expected to continue.
B) the influence of any events that might materially affect the past trend.
C) both A and B.
D) neither A nor B.


7) The "percentage" used in the percent-of-sales calculation can be obtained from
A) the most recent financial statement item as a percent of current sales.
B) an average computed over several years.
C) an analyst's judgment.
D) all of the above.

8) Which of the following are considered to be spontaneous sources of financing (i.e., they arise naturally during the course of doing business)?
A) Notes payable and common stock
B) Accounts receivable and bonds
C) Fixed assets and inventory
D) Accounts payable and accrued expenses

9) Which of the following require adjustments when forecasting asset needs as a percent of sales?
A) If assets must be purchased in large, discrete quantities
B) When the firm has excess capacity
C) When assets can be leased rather than purchased
D) Both A and B


10) The preparation of pro forma financial statements accomplishes which of the following objectives?
A) It allows management to pinpoint a firm's optimal stock price.
B) It is essential if the firm is to accurately estimate its weighted average cost of capital.
C) It assists management in making decisions with respect to raising the capital that is needed for growth.
D) It pinpoints periods when the firm will have short-term cash surpluses.

11) Which of the following assumptions is not required by the percent of sales method?
A) The inventory turnover will remain constant during the forecast period.
B) The profit margin will remain constant during the forecast period.
C) Cash, as a percent of sales, will remain constant throughout the forecast period.
D) The debt to equity ratio will remain constant throughout the forecast period.

12) Apple Two Enterprises expects to generate sales of $5,950,000 for fiscal 2014; sales were $3,450,000 in fiscal 2013. Assume the following figures for the fiscal year ending 2013: cash $70,000; accounts receivable $250,000; inventory $400,000; net fixed assets $520,000; accounts payable $235,000; and accruals $155,000. Use the percent-of-sales method to forecast accounts payable for the fiscal year ending 2014.
A) $212,036
B) $405,290
C) $619,619
D) $155,000


13) Assume that Zybo, Inc. has sales of $10 million and inventory of $2 million. The corporation utilizes the percent-of-sales method of financial forecasting. If Zybo is expected to generate sales of $14 million next year, what will the firm's investment in inventory be?
A) $1.4 million
B) $2.0 million
C) $2.8 million
D) None of the above

14) Assume that Calamar Corp. has sales of $7.5 million and accounts payable of $450,000. The corporation utilizes the percent-of-sales method of financial forecasting. If Calamar is expected to generate sales of $9 million next year, what will the firm's accounts payable be?
A) $540,000
B) $450,000
C) $405,000
D) None of the above

15) Assume that Hercules Manufacturing has sales of $25 million and current assets of $5 million. The corporation utilizes the percent-of-sales method of financial forecasting. If Hercules is expected to generate sales of $31 million next year, what will the firm's investment in current assets be?
A) $8.3 million
B) $4.0 million
C) $6.2 million
D) $5.0 million


16) Assume that Gatsby Enterprises has sales of $83 million and fixed assets of $22.4 million in 2013. The corporation utilizes the percent-of-sales method of financial forecasting. If Gatsby is expected to generate sales of $94 million in 2014, what will the firm's investment in fixed assets be? The minimum fixed asset expansion costs $4,000,000.
A) $19.8 million
B) $26.4 million
C) $16.2 million
D) $25.4 million

17) Apple Two Enterprises expects to generate sales of $5,950,000 for fiscal 2014; sales were $3,450,000 in fiscal 2013. Assume the following figures for the fiscal year ending 2013: cash $70,000; accounts receivable $250,000; inventory $400,000; net fixed assets $520,000; accounts payable $235,000; and accruals $155,000. Use the percent-of-sales method to forecast accruals for the fiscal year ending 2014.
A) $890,001
B) $412,316
C) $267,319
D) $350,814

18) The percent-of-sales method of forecasting makes which of the following assumptions?
A) That some assets do not increase in direct proportion to an increase in sales.
B) The accounts receivable average collection period will remain constant throughout the forecast period.
C) The firm may acquire some "lumpy" assets.
D) All of the above.


19) Discretionary financing needs implies
A) that management may choose between various forms of debt and equity.
B) that the purchases being financed are optional rather than necessary.
C) that management has considerable discretion in how to dispose of retained earnings.
D) that management may choose between debt, new equity or retained earnings.

20) Spontaneous sources of financing include
A) accounts payable and accrued expenses.
B) notes payable and mortgages payable.
C) long-term debt and capital leases.
D) common stock and paid-in capital.

21) Which of the following is the correct method of determining discretionary financing needed (DFN)?
A) Projected change in assets, divided by projected change in liabilities, plus projected change in owner's equity
B) Projected change in assets, times projected change in owner's equity, minus projected change in liabilities
C) Projected change in owner's equity, minus projected change in liabilities, plus projected change in assets
D) Projected change in assets, minus projected change in liabilities, minus projected change in owner's equity


22) A discretionary form of financing would be
A) notes payable.
B) accounts payable.
C) accrued expenses.
D) none of the above.

23) An increase in projected ________ will increase discretionary funds needed.
A) cash dividends
B) sales
C) retained earnings
D) both A and B

24) Assume all else remains the same. Which of the following statements is true?
A) The lower the dividend payout, the less a firm will have to reinvest.
B) The higher the dividend payout, the more discretionary financing a firm will require.
C) The lower the dividend payout, the more discretionary financing a firm will require.
D) The higher the dividend payout, the higher the retention percentage.


25) An exceptionally high growth rate in sales will typically
A) initially increase the firm's need for discretionary financing.
B) generate enough cash flow to cover  asset expansion.
C) allow the firm to increase its dividend in anticipation of higher cash flows.
D) allow the firm to finance expansion with spontaneous sources of financing.

26) Which of the following accounts would normally increase with an increase in sales and approximately in proportion to the sales increase?
A) Common stock
B) Inventory
C) Notes payable
D) Dividends

27) Holding other things constant, a firm's "discretionary financing needed" (the additional funds required in order to finance the firm) would be reduced if the firm experienced an increase in which of the following?
A) The dividend pay-out ratio
B) The profit margin
C) The accounts receivable average collection period
D) The expected growth rate in sales


28) Which of the following is a source of external capital?
A) Retained earnings
B) Inventory
C) Long-term debt
D) Operating income (earnings before interest and taxes)

29) Considering each action independently and holding other things constant, which of the following actions would increase a firm's discretionary financing needed (the need for additional capital)?
A) A decrease in the firm's accounts receivable average collection period
B) An increase in the firm's profit margin
C) A decrease in the firm's inventory turnover
D) A decrease in the expected growth rate in sales

30) Which of the following will decrease discretionary funds needed?
A) An increase in projected accounts receivable
B) An increase in projected accounts payable
C) An increase in projected dividends
D) Both A and C


31) Which of the following is a spontaneous source of financing?
A) Accrued expenses
B) Notes payable
C) Common stock
D) Paid-in capital

32) Swings in discretionary financing needed can be caused by
A) firm profitability.
B) the growth rate of sales.
C) the need to upgrade technology and physical assets from time to time.
D) all of the above.

33) Which of the following will reduce the firm's financing requirements?
A) The firm operates at full capacity
B) The firm has excess capacity
C) The firm expects rapid growth in sales
D) The firm increases its dividend payout ratio


Use the following information and the percent-of-sales method to answer the following question(s).

Below is the 2014 year-end balance sheet for Banner, Inc. Sales for 2014 were $1,600,000 and are expected to be $2,000,000 during 2015. In addition, we know that Banner plans to pay $90,000 in 2015 dividends and expects projected net income of 4% of sales. (For consistency with the Answer selections provided, round your forecast percentages to two decimals.)

                       Banner, Inc. Balance Sheet
                              December 31, 2014
Assets
Current assets                                                   $890,000
Net fixed assets                                               1,000,000
Total                                                                 $1,890,000
Liabilities and Owners' Equity
Accounts payable                                            $160,000
Accrued expenses                                              100,000
Notes payable                                                     700,000
Long-term debt                                                   300,000
Total liabilities                                                 1,260,000
Common stock (plus paid-in capital)          360,000
Retained earnings                                              270,000
Common equity                                                  630,000
Total                                                                    1,890,000

34) Banner's projected current assets for 2015 are
A) $1,000,000.
B) $1,120,000.
C) $1,500,000.
D) $1,260,000.


35) Banner's projected fixed assets for 2015 are
A) $1,120,000.
B) $1,260,000.
C) $1,000,000.
D) $2,380,000.

36) Banner's projected accounts payable balance for 2015 is
A) $160,000.
B) $120,000.
C) $200,000.
D) $300,000.

37) Banner's projected accrued expenses for 2015 are
A) $120,000.
B) $160,000.
C) $100,000.
D) $200,000.


38) Banner's projected long-term debt for 2015 is
A) $700,000.
B) $880,000.
C) $380,000.
D) $300,000.

39) Banner's projected retained earnings for 2015 are
A) $260,000.
B) $280,000.
C) $340,000.
D) $350,000.

40) Banner's projected discretionary financing needed for 2015 is
A) $420,000.
B) $440,000.
C) $360,000.
D) $370,000.

41) The projected change in retained earnings equals projected net income less any dividends to be paid.
Answer:  TRUE

42) The initiation of a major advertising campaign would be an example of an event that would affect past trends in sales when projecting statements.
Answer:  TRUE

43) The percentages used in the percent-of-sales method comes from pro forma financial statements.
Answer:  FALSE

44) The percent-of-sales method is a commonly used method for estimating a firm's financing needs.
Answer:  TRUE

45) Long-term financial plans must include capital expenditures.
Answer:  TRUE

46) Asset purchases frequently precede a rapid increase in sales and require increased discretionary financing.

47) Holding all other variables constant, as the dividend payout ratio decreases, the sustainable growth rate increases.
Answer:  TRUE

48) Pro forma statements provide single point estimates of each budgeted item.
Answer:  TRUE

49) Pro forma statements are important since they formally report the performance of the firm during a previous reporting period.
Answer:  FALSE

50) When forecasting statements, assets always increase proportionately to sales regardless of capacity.
Answer:  FALSE

51) The most commonly used method for making financial forecasts is the percent-of-sales method.
Answer:  TRUE

52) It is common practice to develop optimistic and pessimistic scenarios when projecting financial statements.
Answer:  TRUE

53) Discretionary sources of financing are those sources that vary automatically with a firm's level of sales.
Answer:  FALSE

54) When fixed expenses increase relative to sales, it indicates that there is not enough productive capacity to absorb an increase in sales.
Answer:  TRUE

55) If the firm's current fixed assets are sufficient to support the projected level of new sales, then these assets would be projected to remain unchanged for the forecast period.
Answer:  TRUE


56) Because accounts payable and accrued expenses increase with sales, they represent sources of spontaneous financing.
Answer:  TRUE

57) What is meant by spontaneous financing?

Answer:  Certain types of financing typically increase "spontaneously" with sales and are "free" in the sense that no interest expense is incurred. Examples: Inventory typically increases with sales and accounts payable increase with inventory. Accounts payable are interest-free loans provided by the firm's vendors to finance inventory purchases. Also, as sales increase, we would expect payroll, and therefore accrued salaries and wages payable to increase. Accrued wages and salaries are interest-free loans from employees to their employers.

58) What is meant by discretionary financing?

Answer:  Discretionary financing could be any type of short-term or long-term loan whether it be a line of credit from a bank to finance working capital needs or a major bond issue. The major point is that the firm must initiate a formal borrowing process, subject itself to a credit review, and incur a cost in the form of interest. Discretionary financing could also take the form of issuing new preferred or common stock. Again, a cost is incurred in the form of return to the stockholders.


59) The balance sheet of the Jackson Company is presented below:

                                                 Jackson Company Balance Sheet
                                                                 March 31, 2014
                                                             (Millions of Dollars)
                                Current assets     $12        Accounts payable         $6
                                Fixed assets            18        Long-term debt              12
                                Total                       $30        Common equity            12
                                                                                Total                               $30

For the year ending March 31, 2014, Jackson had sales of $35 million. The common stockholders received all net earnings of the firm in the form of cash dividends, leaving no funds from earnings available to the firm for expansion (assume that depreciation expense is just equal to the cost of replacing worn-out assets).
Construct a pro forma balance sheet for March 31, 2015 for an expected level of sales of $45 million. Assume current assets and accounts payable vary as a percent of sales, and fixed assets remain at the present level. Use notes payable as a source of discretionary financing.

Answer:
                                                              Jackson Company
                                                        Pro Forma Balance Sheet
                                                                 March 31, 2015
                                                             (Millions of dollars)
                                Current assets $15.4        Accounts payable     $7.7
                                Fixed assets        18.0        Notes payable               1.7
                                Total                   $33.4        Long-term debt          12.0
                                                                                Common equity         12.0
                                                                                Total                            $33.4


60) Au Courant Bakery is a new firm specializing in gluten free pastry products. In attempting to determine what the financial position of the firm should be, the financial manager obtained the following average data for the baking industry for 2014.  All data is expressed as a percentage of sales.

Fill in the dollar amounts on Au Courant's pro forma balance sheet assuming 2015 sales are $450,000.

                                                   Au Courant Bakery
                                              Pro Forma Balance Sheet
                                                    December 31, 2015
                 Cash, 2.22%                                       Accounts payable, 6.67%
                 Accounts receivable, 2.78%           Long-term debt, 6.67%
                 Inventory, 3%
                 Total current assets ?                      Common equity, ?
                 Fixed assets ?                                     Total liabilities and equity, ?
                 Total assets, 33%

Answer:
                                                           Au Courant Bakery
                                                     Pro Forma Balance Sheet
                                                           December 31, 2015
                Cash                                 $9,900        Current debt         $30,000
                Accounts receivable     12,510        Long-term debt      30,000
                Inventory                         13,500       
                Total current assets  $35,910        Common equity    90,000
                Fixed assets                  114,090        Total liabilities
                Total assets                $150,000        and equity           $150,000


61) Amalgamated Enterprises is planning to purchase some new equipment. With this new equipment, the company expects sales to increase from $8,000,000 to $10,000,000. A portion of the financing for the purchase of the equipment will come from a $1,000,000 new common stock issue. The company knows that current assets, fixed assets, accounts payable, and accrued expenses increase in direct proportion with sales. The company's net profit margin on sales is 8%, and the company plans to pay 40% of its after-tax earnings in dividends. A copy of the company's current balance sheet is given below:

Amalgamated Enterprises Balance Sheet
Current assets                                        $3,000,000
Fixed assets                                            12,000,000
Total assets                                          $15,000,000
Accounts payable                                 $4,000,000
Accrued expenses                                   1,000,000
Long-term debt                                        3,000,000
Common stock                                        2,000,000
Retained earnings                                  5,000,000
Total liabilities and net worth        $15,000,000

Prepare a pro forma balance sheet for Amalgamated for next year using the percent-of-sales method and the information provided above.


Answer: 
                                       Amalgamated Enterprises
                                        Pro Forma Balance Sheet

                                                Projected
                                                Present                Percent               Based on
                                                Level                    of Sales               of
                                                (Mil)                     Sales                    $10 Mil
Current assets                        $2                        .375                      $3.75
Fixed assets                            12                      1.500                      15.00
Total assets                          $15                                                   $18.75
Accounts payable                 $4                          .50                      $5.00
Accrued expenses                $1                        .125                        1.25
Long-term debt                        3                             a.                    4.02d.
Common stock                        2                             a.                     3.00b.
Retained earnings                  5                             a.                     5.48c.
Total liabilities
and net worth                     $15                                                   $18.75

Notes
a. Not applicable. These accounts are assumed not to vary directly with sales.
b. The company issued $1 million in new common stock.
c. The increase in retained earnings is equal to net profit minus dividends paid. Increase in retained earnings = (.08)($1M)(1 - .40) = $.48M
d. The long-term debt on the projected balance sheet is equal to total assets minus accounts payable, accrued expenses, common stock, and retained earnings. Long-term debt = $18.75M = $5.0M + $1.25M + $3.0M + $5.48M = $4.02M


62) Lindsey Insurance Co. has current sales of $10 million and predicts next year's sales will grow to $14 million. Current assets are $3 million and fixed assets are $4 million. The firm's net profit margin is 7% after taxes. Presently, Lindsey has $900,000 in accounts payable, $1.1 million in long-term debt, and $5 million (including $2.5 million in retained earnings) in common equity. Next year, Lindsey projects that current assets will rise in direct proportion to the forecasted sales, and that fixed assets will rise by $500,000. Lindsey also plans to pay dividends of $400,000 to common shareholders.
a. What are Lindsey's total financing needs for the upcoming year?
b. Given the above information, what are Lindsey's discretionary financing needs?

Answer: 
a. Projected Financing Needs = Projected Total Assets = Projected Current Assets + Projected Fixed Assets = ($3m/$10m) × $14m + $4m + $.5m = $8.7m
b. DFN = Projected Current Assets + Projected Fixed Assets - Present LTD - Present Owner's Equity - [Projected Net Income - Dividends] - Spontaneous Financing = ($3m/$10m) × $14m + $4.5m - $1.1m - $5m - [.07 × $14m - $.4m] - ($.9m/$10m) × $14m
DFN = $4.2m + $4.5m - $6.1m - $.58m - $1.26m = $.76m


17.3   Developing a Short-Term Financial Plan

1) Which of the following is NOT a basic function of a budget?
A) Budgets indicate the need for future short-term financing.
B) Budgets provide the basis for corrective action when actual figures differ from the budgeted figures.
C) Budgets compare historical costs of the firm with its current cost performance.
D) Budgets allow for performance evaluation.

2) Which of the following will increase cumulative borrowing in the cash budget?
A) Slower collections from customers
B) Slower payments to suppliers
C) Higher interest rates
D) Faster collection of receivables

3) All of the following are found in the cash budget EXCEPT
A) a net change in cash for the period.
B) inventory.
C) cash disbursements.
D) new financing needed.


4) Purchases of plant and equipment can be determined from the
A) current cash budget.
B) previous period's balance sheet.
C) pro forma income statement.
D) use of ratio analysis.

5) Which of the following is always a non-cash expense?
A) Income taxes
B) Salaries
C) Depreciation
D) None of the above

6) A company collects 60% of its sales during the month of the sale, 30% one month after the sale, and 10% two months after the sale. The company expects sales of $10,000 in August, $20,000 in September, $30,000 in October, and $40,000 in November. How much money is expected to be collected in October?
A) $25,000
B) $15,000
C) $35,000
D) None of the above


7) The function of a budget includes to
A) indicate the amount and time of future financing needs.
B) provide a basis for corrective action.
C) provide information for performance evaluations.
D) all of the above.

                                                                  Table 1
Dorian Industries' projected sales for the first six months of 2014 are given below:

Jan.         $200,000               April      $400,000
Feb.        $240,000               May       $320,000
March   $280,000               June       $320,000

25% of sales is collected in cash at the time of the sale, 50% is collected in the month following the sale, and the remaining 25% is collected in the second month following the sale. Cost of goods sold is 75% of sales. Purchases are made in the month prior to the sale, and payments for purchases are made in the month of the sale. Total other cash expenses are $60,000/month. The company's cash balance as of February 28, 2004 will be $40,000. Excess cash will be used to retire short-term borrowing (if any). Dorian has no short-term borrowing as of February 28, 2014. Assume that the interest rate on short-term borrowing is 1% per month. The company must have a minimum cash balance of $25,000 at the beginning of each month. Round all answers to the nearest $100.

8) Based on the information in Table 1, what are Dorian Industries' total cash receipts (collections) for April 2014?
A) $400,000
B) $300,000
C) $100,000
D) ($60,000)


9) Based on the information in Table 1, what is Dorian Industries' total disbursement in May (not including interest on short-term borrowing)?
A) $300,000
B) $240,000
C) $25,900
D) ($60,000)

10) Based on the information in Table 1, what is Dorian Industries' ending cash balance (before borrowing) in March?
A) $10,000
B) $25,000
C) $20,000
D) ($30,000)

11) Based on the information in Table 1, what is Dorian's projected cumulative short-term borrowing as of April 30, 2014?
A) $15,000
B) $60,000
C) $35,150
D) $75,000


12) Based on the information in Table 1, what is Dorian's projected EBIT for March 2014?
A) ($10,000)
B) ($30,000)
C) $70,000
D) None of the above

                                                                     Table 2
Fielding Wilderness Outfitters had projected its sales for the first six months of 20 14 to be as follows:

Jan.        $50,000                 April      $180,000
Feb.        $60,000                 May       $240,000
March   $100,000               June       $240,000

Cost of goods sold is 60% of sales. Purchases are made and paid for two months prior to the sale. 40% of sales are collected in the month of the sale, 40% are collected in the month following the sale, and the remaining 20% in the second month following the sale. Total other cash expenses are $40,000/month. The company's cash balance as of March 1, 2014 is projected to be $40,000, and the company wants to maintain a minimum cash balance of $15,000. Excess cash will be used to retire short-term borrowing (if any exists). Fielding has no short-term borrowing as of March 1, 2014. Assume that the interest rate on short-term borrowing is 1% per month.

13) Based on the information contained in Table 2, what are Fielding's projected total receipts (collections) for April?
A) $124,000
B) $180,000
C) ($4,000)
D) $36,000


14) Based on the information in Table 2, what was Fielding's projected loss for March?
A) $184,000
B) $110,000
C) $84,000
D) None of the above

15) Based on the information in Table 2, how much short-term financing is needed by March 30, 2014?
A) $110,000
B) $15,000
C) $70,000
D) $85,000

16) Miller Metalworks had sales in November of $60,000, in December of $40,000, and in January of $80,000. Miller collects 40% of sales in the month of the sale and 60% one month after the sale. Calculate Miller's cash receipts for January.
A) $44,000
B) $56,000
C) $64,000
D) $72,000


                                                                  Table 3
Thompson Manufacturing Supplies' projected sales for the first six months of 2014 are given below.

Jan.         $250,000               April      $400,000
Feb.        $300,000               May       $450,000
March   $400,000               June       $400,000

40% of sales is collected in the month of the sale, 50% is collected in the month following the sale, and 10% is written off as uncollectible. Cost of goods sold is 70% of sales. Purchases are made the month prior to the sale and are paid during the month the purchases are made (i.e. goods sold in March are bought and paid for in February). Total other cash expenses are $50,000/month. The company's cash balance as of February 1, 2014 will be $40,000. Excess cash will be used to retire short-term borrowing (if any). Thompson has no short-term borrowing as of February 28, 2014. Assume that the interest rate on short-term borrowing is 1% per month. The company must have a minimum cash balance of $25,000 at the beginning of each month. Round all answers to the nearest $100.

17) Based on the information in Table 3, what are Thompson's projected total receipts (collections) for March?
A) $400,000
B) $310,000
C) ($20,000)
D) $320,000

18) Based on the information in Table 3, what is Thompson's projected cumulative borrowing as of March 1, 2014?
A) $85,000
B) $45,000
C) $70,000
D) - 0 -


19) Based on the information in Table 3, what is Thompson's projected cash balance as of April 1, 2014?
A) $32,000
B) $4,300
C) $25,000
D) None of the above

20) The primary purpose of a cash budget is to
A) determine the level of investment in current and fixed assets.
B) determine accounts payable.
C) provide a detailed plan of future cash flows.
D) determine the estimated income tax for the year.

21) Your firm is trying to determine its cash disbursements for the next two months (June and July). In any month, the firm makes purchases of 60% of that month's sales, which are paid the following month. In addition, the firm incurs the following costs every month and pays for them in the month the expenses are incurred: wages/salaries of $10,000, rent of $4,000, and miscellaneous cash expenses of $1,000. Depreciation amortized on a monthly basis is $2,000. June's sales are expected to be $100,000, and July's sales are expected to be $150,000. Cash disbursements for the month of July are expected to be
A) $105,000.
B) $107,000.
C) $77,000.
D) $75,000.


22) As of December 31, Budget, Inc. had a cash balance of $50,000. December sales were $150,000 and are expected to be $100,000 in January. 20% of sales in any month are cash sales, and 80% of sales are collected during the following month. In January, Budget is expected to have total cash disbursements of $120,000, and Budget requires a minimum cash balance of $50,000. Budget's expected cash receipts for January are
A) $80,000.
B) $100,000.
C) $110,000.
D) $140,000.

23) Which of the following is NOT an element of the cash budget?
A) Cash receipts
B) Cash disbursements
C) Depreciation expense
D) New financing needed

24) Which of the following will decrease cumulative borrowing on the cash budget?
A) A decrease in interest expense
B) A decrease in collections
C) An increase in equipment purchases
D) Both A and B


25) Home to House Distributors is preparing a cash budget. The initial conclusion is that the firm will need to borrow more money than its bank is willing to lend. Which of the following actions could Home to House Distributors perform to reduce its need for bank financing this year?
A) Pay cash for purchasing inventory instead of having to rely on trade credit
B) Prepay next year's quarterly income tax payments
C) Try to collect the firm's accounts receivable faster
D) Purchase larger quantities of inventory to take advantage of trade discounts

26) Which of the following expenses should be included as a cash outlay in the preparation of a cash budget?
A) The payment of accounts payable
B) The payment of depreciation expense
C) The payment of accrued income taxes
D) All of the above

27) The preparation of a cash budget serves which of the following purposes?
A) To estimate the amount and timing of cash flows that are needed in order to optimize the price of the firm's common stock
B) To calculate the amount of future cash flows that would be needed in order to achieve the optimal level of financing during the forecast period
C) To determine the amount and timing of short-term financing that would be required for the operation of a business during the forecast period
D) To estimate the amount of sales volume that would be required in order to achieve the break-even point


28) The timing of collections from sales made in past months is an important consideration for cash budgeting.
Answer:  TRUE

29) Depreciation expense is a deduction from cash flow in the cash budget.
Answer:  FALSE

30) The percent-of-sales method is more detailed than the cash budget method.
Answer:  FALSE

31) Depreciation expense is always included in the cash budget as it reflects the impact of fixed asset purchases.
Answer:  FALSE

32) The cash budget can be used to provide an estimate of the firm's future financing needs.
Answer:  TRUE

33) The cash budget ignores discretionary financing.
Answer:  FALSE

34) A budget is a forecast of future events.
Answer:  TRUE

35) Broad Cloth, Inc.'s average collection period is 15 days. The vice-president of marketing has projected credit sales of $2. million for October, $2.5 million for November and $3 million for December. Compute cash collections for November and December. Assume that all months have 30 days.

Answer: 
November collections = last 50% of October + first 50% of November = .5(2,000,000) + .5(2,500,000) = $2,250,000.
December collections = last 50% of November + first 50% of December = .5(2,500,000) + .5(3,000,000) = $2,750,000.

36) Broad Cloth, Inc.'s average collection period is 15 days. The vice-president of marketing has projected credit sales of $2. million for October, $2.5 million for November and $3 million for December. Purchases equal 60% of sales and are made one month in advance of budgeted sales. Payments are made 1 month after the date of purchase. Compute payments for purchases for the months of November and December.

Answer: 
October purchases = .6(2,500,000) = $1,500,000. This payment will be made in November.
November purchases = .6(3,000,000) = $1,800,000. This payment will be made in December.


37) The cash budget for Parker Process Meats, Inc. for the fourth quarter of 2014 is given below:

Parker Process Meats, Inc.
Cash Budget for the Three Months Ending December 31, 2014
Cash receipts                                                      Oct.                Nov.               Dec.
Total collections                                         $31,050               $4,050         $49,950
Cash disbursements:
Purchases                                                       44,550               48,600           52,650
Wages and salaries                                        7,425                  7,425              7,425
Other expenses                                                2,025                  1,350                 675
Taxes                                         17,415
Total disbursements                                 $54,000             $57,375         $78,165

The expected sales for the period are as follows:
Oct.: $86,400 Nov.: $91,800 Dec.: $83,700
The total depreciation expense for the period will be $8,775.
An interest payment on outstanding debt of $15,000 will be made in December.

Using the information given, construct a pro forma income statement for the final quarter of 2014 for Parker.

Answer:
                     Parker Processed Meats, Inc.
                    Pro Forma Income Statement
        For the Quarter Ended December 31, 2014
Sales                                                             $261,900
Less: cost of goods sold                            145,800
Gross profits                                              $116,100
Less:
Depreciation expense                                  $8,775
Wages and salaries                                      22,275
Other expenses                                                4,050
Net operating income                               $81,000
Less: interest expense                                  15,000
Earnings before taxes                                $66,000
Less: income taxes                                       17,415
Net income                                                   $48,585


38) The treasurer for Brookdale Clothing must decide how much money the company needs to borrow in July. The balance sheet for June 30, 2014 is presented below:

                                               Brookdale Clothing Balance Sheet
                                                                   June 30, 2014
Cash                                       $75,000                Accounts payable            $400,000
Marketable securities        100,000                Long-term debt                   300,000
Accounts receivable           300,000                Common stock                    100,000
Inventory                               250,000                Retained earnings              200,000
Total current assets            725,000                Total liabilities and
Fixed assets                          275,000                stockholder's equity     $1,000,000
Total assets                     $1,000,000

The company expects sales of $250,000 for July. The company has observed that 25% of its sales is for cash and that the remaining 75% is collected in the following month. The company plans to purchase $400,000 of new clothing. Usually 40% of purchases is for cash and the remaining 60% of purchases is paid in the following month. Salaries are $100,000 per month, lease payments are $50,000 per month, and depreciation charges are $20,000 per month. The company plans to purchase a new building for $200,000 in July and sell its marketable securities for $100,000. If the company must maintain a minimum cash balance of $50,000, how much money must the company borrow in July?
Answer:  Brookdale Clothing
Cash Budget for July 2014
Cash Inflows
Reduction in cash                                              $25,000
Sale of marketable securities                          100,000
Collection of accounts receivable                  300,000
Cash sales (.25)($250,000)                                 62,500
Total cash inflows                                           $487,500
Cash Outflows
Repayment of accounts payable                 $400,000
Cash purchases                                                  160,000
Salaries                                                                  100,000
Lease payments                                                    50,000
Purchase of building                                         200,000
Total cash outflows                                         $910,000
Net inflow (outflows)                                   ($422,500)
The company needs to borrow                   $422,500.
Diff: 2
AACSB:  3.  Analytic thinking
Question Status:  Revised
Objective:  17.3  Prepare a cash budget and use it to evaluate the amount and timing of a firm's short-term financing requirements.
Keywords:  cash budgets
Principles:  Principle 3: Cash Flows Are the Source of Value



39) The ZYX Corporation is planning to request a line of credit from its bank and wants to estimate its cash needs for the month of September. The following sales forecasts have been made for 2014:

July                               $500,000
August                         $400,000
September                   $300,000
October                        $200,000
November                   $100,000

Collection estimates were obtained from the credit collection department as follows: 20% collected within the month of sale; 70% collected the first month following the sale; and 10% collected the second month following the sale. Payments for labor and raw materials are typically made in the month in which these costs are incurred. Total labor and raw material costs each month are 50% of sales. General administrative expenses are $30,000 per month, lease payments are $10,000 per month, and depreciation charges are $20,000 per month. The corporation tax rate is 40%; however, no corporate taxes are paid in September. Prepare a cash budget for September.


Answer: 
ZYX Corporation
Pro Forma Income Statement
September 2015
Sales                                                             $300,000
Total cost of goods sold                            150,000
Gross profit                                                $150,000
Depreciation                                                  20,000
General administrative expenses            30,000
Lease payments                                            10,000
Operating income                                      $90,000
Taxes                                                                36,000
Net income                                                   $54,000

ZYX Corporation
Cash Budget
September 2005
Cash Inflows
Collections from September sales         $60,000
Collections from August sales               280,000
Collections from July sales                        50,000
 Total cash inflows                                  $390,000
Cash Outflows
Labor and raw materials                       $150,000
General administrative expenses            30,000
Lease payments                                            10,000
Total cash outflow                                   $190,000
Net cash inflow                                        $200,000

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