Thursday, August 7, 2014

OPM - Quallity Management

Definition of Quality:

  • Customer satisfaction
  • Manufacturing based - conformance to standards, making it right the first time, zero defect.
  • Product based - specific and measurable attributes of the product.

  • Continuous improvement (Kaizen)
  • Six sigma (3.4 defect/million)
  • employee empowerment
  • benchmarking
  • just-in-time (JIT)
  • taguchi concept
  • knowledge of TQM tools

Tools of TQM:
  • Check sheet
  • scatter diagrams
  • cause-and effect diagram (taghuci/fish bone diagram)
  • pareto charts
  • flow charts
  • histogram
  • statistical process control (SPC)

Cost of Quality:
  1. Prevention costs - reducing the potential for defects.
  2. Appraisal costs - evaluating products, parts and services.
  3. Internal failure - producing defective parts or service before delivery
  4. External costs - defects discovered after delivery.

Quality GURU:

W Edward Deming
14 Point for Management
Joseph M Juran
Top Mgmt commitment,
fitness for use
Armand Feigenbaum
Total Quality Control
Philip B Crosby
Quality is Free

Benefit of quality:

Company reputation
  • Perception of new products
  • Employment practices
  • Supplier relations
Product liability
  • Reduce risk
Global implications
  • Improved ability to compete

Deming Quality Concept:

  • Create consistency of purpose
  • Lead to promote change
  • Build quality into the product; stop depending on inspection
  • Build long term relationships based on performance, not price
  • Continuously improve product, quality, and service
  • Start training
  • Emphasize leadership
  • Drive out fear
  • Break down barriers between departments
  • Stop haranguing workers
  • Support, help, improve
  • Remove barriers to pride in work
  • Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement
  • Put everybody in the company to work on the transformation

Six Sigma - DMAIC Approach:

  • Define critical outputs and identify gaps for improvement
  • Measure the work and collect process data
  • Analyze the data
  • Improve the process
  • Control the new process to make sure new performance is maintained

Benchmarking - Selecting best practices to use as a standard for performance
  • Determine what to benchmark
  • Form a benchmark team
  • Identify benchmarking partners
  • Collect and analyze benchmarking information
  • Take action to match or exceed the benchmark

Taguchi Concept: Experimental design methods to improve product and process design
  • Identify key component and process variables affecting product variation
Taguchi Concepts
  • Quality robustness
  • Quality loss function
  • Target-oriented quality

When and Where to Inspect
  • At the supplier’s plant while the supplier is producing
  • At your facility upon receipt of goods from the supplier
  • Before costly or irreversible processes
  • During the step-by-step production processes
  • When production or service is complete
  • Before delivery from your facility
  • At the point of customer contact

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